Welcome to Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial
"The place where you learn linux"
The ONE Campaign to make poverty history

 Create an AccountHome | Submit News | Your Account  

Tutorial Menu
Linux Tutorial Home
Table of Contents

· Introduction to Operating Systems
· Linux Basics
· Working with the System
· Shells and Utilities
· Editing Files
· Basic Administration
· The Operating System
· The X Windowing System
· The Computer Itself
· Networking
· System Monitoring
· Solving Problems
· Security
· Installing and Upgrading
· Linux and Windows

Man Pages
Linux Topics
Test Your Knowledge

Site Menu
Site Map
Copyright Info
Terms of Use
Privacy Info
Masthead / Impressum
Your Account

Private Messages

News Archive
Submit News
User Articles
Web Links


The Web

Who's Online
There are currently, 70 guest(s) and 0 member(s) that are online.

You are an Anonymous user. You can register for free by clicking here




       tc  qdisc  ...  dev  dev ( parent classid | root) [ handle
       major: ] prio [ bands bands ] [ priomap  band,band,band...
       ] [ estimator interval timeconstant ]


       The  PRIO  qdisc  is a simple classful queueing discipline
       that contains an arbitrary number of classes of  differing
       priority. The classes are dequeued in numerical descending
       order of priority. PRIO is a scheduler  and  never  delays
       packets - it is a work-conserving qdisc, though the qdiscs
       contained in the classes may not be.

       Very useful for lowering latency when there is no need for
       slowing down traffic.


       On  creation  with 'tc qdisc add', a fixed number of bands
       is created. Each band is a class, although is not possible
       to add classes with 'tc qdisc add', the number of bands to
       be created must instead be specified  on  the  commandline
       attaching PRIO to its root.

       When  dequeueing, band 0 is tried first and only if it did
       not deliver a packet does PRIO try band 1, and so onwards.
       Maximum reliability packets should therefore go to band 0,
       minimum delay to band 1 and the rest to band 2.

       As the PRIO qdisc itself will have minor number 0, band  0
       is  actually  major:1,  band 1 is major:2, etc. For major,
       substitute the major number assigned to the qdisc  on  'tc
       qdisc add' with the handle parameter.


       Three  methods are available to PRIO to determine in which
       band a packet will be enqueued.

       From userspace
              A process with sufficient privileges can encode the
              destination  class  directly  with SO_PRIORITY, see

       with a tc filter
              A tc filter attached to the root  qdisc  can  point
              traffic directly to a class

       with the priomap
              Based  on  the  packet  priority,  which in turn is
              derived from the Type of Service  assigned  to  the
              Determines  how  packet  priorities, as assigned by
              the kernel, map to bands. Mapping occurs  based  on
              the TOS octet of the packet, which looks like this:

              0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
              |           |               |   |
              |PRECEDENCE |      TOS      |MBZ|
              |           |               |   |

              The four TOS bits (the 'TOS field') are defined as:

              Binary Decimcal  Meaning
              1000   8         Minimize delay (md)
              0100   4         Maximize throughput (mt)
              0010   2         Maximize reliability (mr)
              0001   1         Minimize monetary cost (mmc)
              0000   0         Normal Service

              As  there is 1 bit to the right of these four bits,
              the actual value of the TOS  field  is  double  the
              value  of the TOS bits. Tcpdump -v -v shows you the
              value of the entire TOS field, not  just  the  four
              bits.  It  is the value you see in the first column
              of this table:

              TOS     Bits  Means                    Linux Priority    Band
              0x0     0     Normal Service           0 Best Effort     1
              0x2     1     Minimize Monetary Cost   1 Filler          2
              0x4     2     Maximize Reliability     0 Best Effort     1
              0x6     3     mmc+mr                   0 Best Effort     1
              0x8     4     Maximize Throughput      2 Bulk            2
              0xa     5     mmc+mt                   2 Bulk            2
              0xc     6     mr+mt                    2 Bulk            2
              0xe     7     mmc+mr+mt                2 Bulk            2
              0x10    8     Minimize Delay           6 Interactive     0
              0x12    9     mmc+md                   6 Interactive     0
              0x14    10    mr+md                    6 Interactive     0
              0x16    11    mmc+mr+md                6 Interactive     0
              0x18    12    mt+md                    4 Int. Bulk       1
              0x1a    13    mmc+mt+md                4 Int. Bulk       1
              0x1c    14    mr+mt+md                 4 Int. Bulk       1
              0x1e    15    mmc+mr+mt+md             4 Int. Bulk       1

              The second column contains the value of  the  rele­
              vant  four  TOS  bits, followed by their translated
              meaning. For example, 15 stands for a packet  want­
              ing  Minimal  Montetary  Cost, Maximum Reliability,
              Maximum Throughput AND Minimum Delay.
              correspond to TOS mappings, but which  are  set  by
              other means.

              This table from RFC 1349 (read it for more details)
              explains how applications might very well set their
              TOS bits:

              TELNET                   1000           (minimize delay)
                      Control          1000           (minimize delay)
                      Data             0100           (maximize throughput)

              TFTP                     1000           (minimize delay)

                      Command phase    1000           (minimize delay)
                      DATA phase       0100           (maximize throughput)

              Domain Name Service
                      UDP Query        1000           (minimize delay)
                      TCP Query        0000
                      Zone Transfer    0100           (maximize throughput)

              NNTP                     0001           (minimize monetary cost)

                      Errors           0000
                      Requests         0000 (mostly)
                      Responses        <same as request> (mostly)


       PRIO classes cannot be configured further - they are auto­
       matically created when the PRIO qdisc  is  attached.  Each
       class however can contain yet a further qdisc.


       Large  amounts  of  traffic  in  the lower bands can cause
       starvation of higher bands. Can be prevented by  attaching
       a  shaper  (for  example, tc-tbf(8) to these bands to make
       sure they cannot dominate the link.


       Alexey N. Kuznetsov, <kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>,  J Hadi Salim
       <hadi@cyberus.ca>.  This manpage maintained by bert hubert

Help us cut cost by not downloading the whole site!
Use of automated download sofware ("harvesters") such as wget, httrack, etc. causes the site to quickly exceed its bandwidth limitation and therefore is expressedly prohibited. For more details on this, take a look here



Security Code
Security Code
Type Security Code

Don't have an account yet? You can create one. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name.

Help if you can!

Amazon Wish List

Did You Know?
You can help in many different ways.


Tell a Friend About Us

Bookmark and Share

Web site powered by PHP-Nuke

Is this information useful? At the very least you can help by spreading the word to your favorite newsgroups, mailing lists and forums.
All logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owner. The comments are property of their posters. Articles are the property of their respective owners. Unless otherwise stated in the body of the article, article content (C) 1994-2013 by James Mohr. All rights reserved. The stylized page/paper, as well as the terms "The Linux Tutorial", "The Linux Server Tutorial", "The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial" and "The place where you learn Linux" are service marks of James Mohr. All rights reserved.
The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial may contain links to sites on the Internet, which are owned and operated by third parties. The Linux Tutorial is not responsible for the content of any such third-party site. By viewing/utilizing this web site, you have agreed to our disclaimer, terms of use and privacy policy. Use of automated download software ("harvesters") such as wget, httrack, etc. causes the site to quickly exceed its bandwidth limitation and are therefore expressly prohibited. For more details on this, take a look here

PHP-Nuke Copyright © 2004 by Francisco Burzi. This is free software, and you may redistribute it under the GPL. PHP-Nuke comes with absolutely no warranty, for details, see the license.
Page Generation: 0.08 Seconds