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       startproc  [-f]  [-L]  [[-n  ]+/-<prio>] [-s] [-t sec] [-u
       user] [-g  group]  [-v]  [-e]  [-l  log_file  |-q|-d]  [-p
       pid_file]  [-c  root]  /path/to/executable  [arguments for

       start_daemon  [-f]  [-n   +/-<prio>]   /path/to/executable
       [arguments for executable]


       startproc  and  the LSB variant start_daemon check for all
       processes of the specified executable and starts it if  no
       processes  are  found.  Note that startproc is designed to
       start a daemon but not a kernel thread or a program  which
       enables a kernel thread.

       startproc does not use the pid to search for a process but
       the full path of the corresponding program which  is  used
       to  identify  the  executable  (see proc(5)).  Only if the
       inode number  (/proc/<pid>/exe)  and  the  full  name  are
       unavailable  (/proc/<pid>/cmdline)  or  if  the executable
       changes its zeroth argument, startproc uses the base  name
       (/proc/<pid>/stat) to identify the running program.

       Extended  functionality is provided by the -p option (for­
       mer option -f  changed  due  to  the  LSB  specification).
       pid_file.  If this option is specified, startproc tries to
       check against the pid read from this file instead  of  the
       default (/var/run/<basename>.pid).  The pid read from this
       file is compared against the pids of possible running pro­
       cesses  that  use  the  specified  executable. In order to
       avoid confusion with stale pid files, a not up-to-date pid
       will be ignored.

       The  option  -v makes startproc print out verbose diagnos­


              Specifies the executable by  its  full  path  name.
              This  argument  is always required. Everything that
              follows this path is  considered  options  for  the
              executable  to be launched. Further information can
              be obtained from the respective manpage(s).


       [-n ]+/-<prio>
              Set the nice level for the process. If  used,  this
              option  should  always  be the first in the command
              line.  The nice level <prio> may  be  specified  in
              confusion with stale pid files,  a  not  up-to-date
              pid will be ignored.

       -f     This  option is required by the Linux Standard Base
              Specification (LSB).  With this option the start of
              a process is forced.

       -g group
              Sets the group ID of the process to gid.

       -l log_file
              Redirect  the  process standard output and standard
              error to the file log_file.

       -L     This option causes symlinks to be followed, as  the
              like-named option in ls(1).  BR Note : for the file
              name the original  name  of  the  program  is  used
              instead of the name of the symbolic link.

       -c root
              Change root directory to root.  Services which have
              been started with this option can only  be  checked
              by  checkproc(8)  and  signaled  by  killproc(8) if
              checkproc(8) and killproc(8) are  called  with  the
              same option argument for the option -c.

       -q     Equals to -l /dev/null (supresses output).

       -d     Let  startproc expect that the started service will
              do a dialog by prompting for,  e.g.  a  passphrase.
              This  option  implies  a  timeout of 15 seconds (-t

       -s     Starts the process in a new session. The  new  task
              is  a  process  group leader and has no controlling

       -t sec The number of seconds to wait after the  successful
              start  of a service.  This options accepts the num­
              ber of seconds to wait.  You can specify some units
              after a given number: s for seconds, m for minutes,
              and h for hours to wait.

       -u user
              Sets the user ID of the process to user.

       -v     Verbose output.


       startproc /usr/sbin/sendmail

              starts /usr/sbin/sendmail if no sendmail process is


       The exit codes have the following LSB conform conditions:

             0    Success
             1    Generic or unspecified error
             2    Invalid or excess argument(s)
             4    Insufficient privilege(s)
             5    Program is not installed
             7    Program is not running

       In some error cases, diagnostic output is sent to standard
       error, or, if standard error is not available,  syslogd(8)
       is being used.


       startproc  is  a replacement for the Bourne shell function
       daemon found in the widely used SysVinit package of Miquel
       van  Smoorenburg,  <miquels@cistron.nl>.  startproc is not
       useful to start kernel threads. This  should  be  done  by
       service  utilities  designed for the purpose to accomplish
       this task.


       Identifying a process based on the executable file and the
       corresponding inode number only works if the process stays
       alive during startproc's  execution.  Processes  rewriting
       their  zeroth  argument or shell scripts (the inode number
       of the shell executable file is not identical to  that  of
       the script file) may not be identified by a filename path.

       Startproc does not start a process if there already exists
       one  being  in  the  zombie  state.  Zombies are processes
       which arn't alive but listed in the process table to  have
       the  exit  status  ready for the corresponding parent pro­
       cesses.  Therefore the parent processes  should  be  check


       /proc/ path to the proc file system (see proc(5)).

              path to the SuSE boot concept script base directory
              as required by the Linux Standard  Base  Specifica­
              tion (LSB) (see init.d(7)).


       checkproc(8), killproc(8), insserv(8), init.d(7), kill(1),
       skill(1), killall(8), killall5(8), signal(7), proc(5).


       1994-2000 Werner Fink, 1996-2000 SuSE GmbH Nuernberg, Ger­



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