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       rmmod [ -aehrsvV ] module ...


       rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel.

       rmmod  tries  to  unload a set of modules from the kernel,
       with the restriction that they are not  in  use  and  that
       they are not referred to by other modules.

       If  more than one module is named on the command line, the
       modules will be removed in the given order. This  supports
       unloading of stacked modules.

       With  the option '-r', a recursive removal of modules will
       be attempted.  This means that if a top module in a  stack
       is named on the command line, all modules that are used by
       this module will be removed as well, if possible.

       -a, --all
              Do  autoclean:  tag  unused  modules  as   "to   be
              cleaned",  and  also remove already tagged modules.
              Modules stay  tagged  if  they  stay  unused  since
              previous   autoclean.    These   two  passes  avoid
              removing transiently unused modules.

       -e, --persist
              Save persistent data for the named modules, without
              unloading  any  modules.   If  no  module names are
              specified then data is saved for all  modules  that
              have  persistent  data.  Data is only saved if both
              the kernel and modutils support persistent data and
              /proc/ksyms contains an entry

       -h, --help
              Display  a summary of options and immediately exit.

       -r, --stacks
              Remove a module stack.

       -s, --syslog
              Output  everything  to  syslog(3)  instead  of  the

       -v, --verbose
              Be verbose.

       -V, --version
              Print the version of modutils.

       to the file, preserving the existing order of comments and
       assignments.  New values are added at the end of the file.
       If  the  file  contains  values  that  do not exist in the
       module then these values are preserved but are preceded by
       a  generated comment warning that they are not being used.
       The latter operation  allows  a  user  to  switch  between
       kernels without losing persistent data and without getting
       any error messages.

       Note: Comments are only supported when the first non-space
       character  on  a line is '#'.  Any non-blank lines that do
       not start with '#' are module options, one per line.   The
       option lines have leading spaces removed, the remainder of
       the line is passed to insmod as an option,  including  any
       trailing characters.


       insmod(8), lsmod(8), ksyms(8), modprobe(8).


       rmmod  [-V | --version] should display version information
       and then exit immediately.  Instead, it prints the version
       information and behaves as if no options were given.

       Although  the  fix for this bug is trivial, it changes the
       behaviour  of  modutils.   Given  the  large   number   of
       distributions and scripts that run modutils and expect the
       current behaviour, any change of behaviour is unacceptable
       in  2.4.   Don't  bother  sending patches for this bug, it
       will not be fixed in 2.4, it should be fixed in 2.5.


       Module support was first conceived by Anonymous
       Initial Linux version by Bas Laarhoven <bas@vimec.nl>
       Version 0.99.14 by Jon Tombs <jon@gtex02.us.es>
       Extended by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated for 2.1.17 by Richard Henderson <rth@tamu.edu>
       Updated for 2.2.2 by by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated  for   modutils   2.3.20   by   by   Keith   Owens
       Persistent  data  for  modutils  2.3.22  by by Keith Owens

Linux                   February 12, 2003                RMMOD(8)
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