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       modprobe [-v]  [-V]  [-C config-file]   [-c]   [-n]   [-i]
       [-o]  [modulename]  [module parameters ...]

       modprobe [-r]  [modulename ...]

       modprobe [-l]  [-t dirname]  [-a]  [wildcard]


       modprobe  intelligently  adds or removes a module from the
       Linux kernel: note that for convenience, there is no  dif­
       ference  between  _ and - in module names.  modprobe looks
       in the module directory /lib/modules/`uname  -r`  for  all
       the  modules  and  other  files,  except  for the optional
       /etc/modprobe.conf   configuration    file    (see    mod­

       Note that this version of modprobe does not do anything to
       the module itself:  the  work  of  resolving  symbols  and
       understanding  parameters  is  done inside the kernel.  So
       module failure is sometimes accompanied by a  kernel  mes­
       sage: see dmesg(8).

       modprobe expects an up-to-date modules.dep file, as gener­
       ated by depmod (see  depmod(8)).   This  file  lists  what
       other  modules  each  module  needs (if any), and modprobe
       uses this to add or remove  these  dependencies  automati­
       cally.  See modules.dep(5)).

       If  any arguments are given after the modulename, they are
       passed to the kernel (in addition to any options listed in
       the configuration file).


       -v --verbose
                 Print  messages about what the program is doing.
                 Usually modprobe only prints messages  if  some­
                 thing goes wrong.

                 This  option  is passed through install       or
                 remove commands to other  modprobe  commands  in
                 the MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable.

       -C --config
                 This  option overrides the default configuration
                 or  delete  the  modules  (or run the install or
                 remove commands).  Combined with -v, it is  use­
                 ful for debugging problems.

       -i --ignore-install --ignore-remove
                 This  option  causes  modprobe to ignore install
                 and remove commands in  the  configuration  file
                 (if  any),  for  the  module on the command line
                 (any dependent modules are still subject to com­
                 mands  set  for them in the configuration file).
                 See modprobe.conf(5).

       -q --quiet
                 Normally modprobe will report an  error  if  you
                 try  to  remove  a module which doesn't isn't in
                 the kernel, or insert a module which is  already
                 in the kernel.  With this flag, modprobe consid­
                 ers such redundant commands to be fine.

                 This option is passed through install         or
                 remove  commands  to  other modprobe commands in
                 the MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable.

       -r --remove
                 This option causes modprobe  to  remove,  rather
                 than insert a module.  If the modules it depends
                 on are also unused, modprobe will try to  remove
                 them, too.  Unlike insertion, more than one mod­
                 ule can be specified on  the  command  line  (it
                 does not make sense to specify module parameters
                 when removing modules).

                 There is usually no reason  to  remove  modules,
                 but  some buggy modules require it.  Your kernel
                 may not support removal of modules.

       -V --version
                 Show version of program, and  exit.   See  below
                 for caveats when run on older kernels.

       -f --force
                 Try to strip any versioning information from the
                 module, which might otherwise stop it from load­
                 ing: this is the same as using both --force-ver­
                 magic and --force-modversion.  Naturally,  these
                 checks  are  there for your protection, so using
                 remove  it.   Naturally, this check is there for
                 your protection, so this using option is danger­

                 This applies any modules inserted: both the mod­
                 ule (or alias) on the command line, and any mod­
                 ules it depends on.

                 When  modules  are  compiled with CONFIG_MODVER­
                 SIONS set, a section is  created  detailing  the
                 versions of every interface used by (or supplied
                 by) the module.  If a module fails to  load  and
                 the  kernel  complains that the module disagrees
                 about a version of some interface, you  can  use
                 "--force-modversion"   to   remove  the  version
                 information altogether.  Naturally,  this  check
                 is  there  for  your  protection,  so using this
                 option is dangerous.

                 This applies any modules inserted: both the mod­
                 ule (or alias) on the command line, and any mod­
                 ules it depends on.

       -l --list List all modules matching the given wildcard (or
                 "*"  if  no  wildcard is given).  This option is
                 provided  for   backwards   compatibility:   see
                 find(1)  and  basename(1)  for  a  more flexible

       -a --all  Insert all modules matching the given  wildcard.
                 This  option  is provided for backwards compati­
                 bility: see find(1) and basename(1) for  a  more
                 flexible alternative.

       -t --type Restrict  -l  or  -a  to  modules in directories
                 matching the dirname given.  This option is pro­
                 vided  for  backwards compatibility: see find(1)
                       and basename(1) or a more flexible  alter­

       -s --syslog
                 This  option  causes  any  error  messages to go
                 through the syslog mechanism (as LOG_DAEMON with
                 level LOG_NOTICE) rather than to standard error.
                 probe.old(8) will never be run).

                 List  the  dependencies  of a module (or alias),
                 including the module itself.   This  produces  a
                 (possibly  empty)  set  of module filenames, one
                 per line.  It does not run any install  commands
                 which  might  apply.   Note that modinfo(8)
                 can be used to extract dependencies of a  module
                 from  the  module  itself,  but knows nothing of

       -o --name This option tries to rename the module which  is
                 being  inserted  into  the kernel.  Some testing
                 modules can usefully be inserted multiple times,
                 but  the  kernel  refuses to have two modules of
                 the same name.   Normally,  modules  should  not
                 require  multiple insertions, as that would make
                 them useless if there were no module support.


       This version of modprobe is for kernels 2.5.48 and  above.
       If  it detects a kernel with support for old-style modules
       (for which much of the work was  done  in  userspace),  it
       will  attempt  to  run modprobe.old in its place, so it is
       completely transparent to the user.


       The MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable can also be used
       to pass arguments to modprobe.


       This manual page Copyright 2002, Rusty Russell, IBM Corpo­


       modprobe.conf(5), lsmod(8), modprobe.old(8)




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