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       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o  filename  ]  pathspec  [pathspec


       mkisofs is effectively a pre-mastering program to generate
       an ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs is capable of generating the  System  Use  Sharing
       Protocol records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Inter­
       change Protocol.  This is used  to  further  describe  the
       files  in  the iso9660 filesystem to a unix host, and pro­
       vides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, posix
       permissions,  symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line  options  are  speci­
       fied,  mkisofs will create additional filesystem meta data
       for Joliet or HFS.  The file content in this  case  refers
       to  the same data blocks on the media.  It will generate a
       pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the Joliet  or  HFS  hybrid
       command line options are given.

       mkisofs  can  generate  a  true  (or  shared)  HFS  hybrid
       filesystem. The same files are  seen  as  HFS  files  when
       accessed  from  a  Macintosh  and  as  ISO9660  files when
       accessed from other machines. HFS stands for  Hierarchical
       File  System  and is the native file system used on Macin­
       tosh computers.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the  Apple  Exten­
       sions  to  ISO9660 for each file. These extensions provide
       each file with CREATOR, TYPE and certain Finder Flags when
       accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FOR­
       MATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given  directory  tree,  and
       generates  a  binary  image  which  will  correspond to an
       ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when written to a block  device.

       Each  file  written  to the iso9660 filesystem must have a
       filename in the 8.3 format (8 characters, period, 3  char­
       acters,  all  upper  case),  even if Rock Ridge is in use.
       This filename is used on systems that are not able to make
       use  of  the  Rock  Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in each directory must be different from the
       other  filenames in the same directory.  mkisofs generally
       tries to form correct names by forcing the  unix  filename
       to  upper case and truncating as required, but often times
       this yields unsatisfactory results when  there  are  cases
       where  the  truncated  names  are not all unique.  mkisofs
       assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that
       Note  that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with the
       writer directly.  Most writers  have  proprietary  command
       sets  which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you
       need a specialized tool to actually burn the disk.

       The cdrecord utility is a utility capable  of  burning  an
       actual  disc.  The latest version of cdrecord is available
       from ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also you should know that most cd writers are very partic­
       ular  about  timing.   Once  you start to burn a disc, you
       cannot let their buffer empty before you are done, or  you
       will end up with a corrupt disc.  Thus it is critical that
       you be able to maintain an uninterrupted  data  stream  to
       the  writer  for  the  entire  time that the disc is being

       pathspec is the path of the directory tree  to  be  copied
       into the iso9660 filesystem.  Multiple paths can be speci­
       fied, and mkisofs will merge the files found in all of the
       specified path components to form the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is pos­
       sible to graft the paths at points  other  than  the  root
       directory,  and  it is possible to graft files or directo­
       ries onto the cdrom image with names different  than  what
       they  have  in  the source filesystem.  This is easiest to
       illustrate with a couple of  examples.    Let's  start  by
       assuming that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish
       to include it in the cdrom image.


       will include the  file  old.lis  in  the  cdrom  image  at
       /foo/bar/old.lis, while


       will  include  the  file  old.lis  in  the  cdrom image at
       /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax can  be  used  with
       directories  as well.  mkisofs will create any directories
       required such that the graft points  exist  on  the  cdrom
       image  -  the  directories do not need to appear in one of
       the paths.  By default, any directories that  are  created
       on the fly like this will have permissions 0555 and appear
       to be owned by the person running mkisofs.   If  you  wish
       other  permissions  or owners of the intermediate directo­
       ries, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and  -new-dir-

       mkisofs  will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled
              the volume header.  This should describe the appli­
              cation that will be on the disc.  There is space on
              the disc for 128 characters of  information.   This
              parameter  can  also  be set in the file .mkisofsrc
              with APPI=id.  If specified  in  both  places,  the
              command line version is used.

              This options allows lower case characters to appear
              in iso9660 filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it  happens
              to work on some systems.  Use with caution.

              This  options allows more than one dot to appear in
              iso9660 filenames.  A leading dot is  not  affected
              by  this option, it may be allowed separately using
              the -L option.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it  happens
              to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
              Specifies the bibliographic file name.  This param­
              eter can also be set in the  file  .mkisofsrc  with
              BIBLO=filename.   If  specified in both places, the
              command line version is used.

              Cache inode and device numbers to find  hard  links
              to  files.   If  mkisofs  finds a hard link (a file
              with multiple  names),  then  the  file  will  only
              appear  once on the CD. This helps to save space on
              the CD.  The option  -cache-inodes  is  default  on
              UNIX like operating systems.  Be careful when using
              this option on a filesystem  without  unique  inode
              numbers  as  it  may result in files containing the
              wrong content on CD.

              Do not cache inode and device numbers.  This option
              is  needed  whenever  a  filesystem  does  not have
              unique inode numbers. It is the default on  Cygwin.
              As  the  Microsoft operating system that runs below
              Cygwin is not POSIX compliant,  it  does  not  have
              unique  inode  numbers.   Cygwin creates fake inode
              numbers from a hash algorithm that is not 100% cor­
              rect.   If mkisofs would cache inodes on Cygwin, it
              would  believe  that  some  files   are   identical
              although  they are not. The result in this case are
              files that contain the wrong content if a  signifi­
              cant  amount  of  different  files  (> ~5000) is in
              inside the tree that is to be archived.  This  does
              assumed that the first 512 byte  sector  should  be
              read from the boot image (it is essentially emulat­
              ing a normal floppy drive).  This  will  work,  for
              example,  if  the  boot  image is a LILO based boot

              If the boot image is not an image of a floppy,  you
              need  to add one of the options: -hard-disk-boot or
              -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not  boot  off
              the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              Start  with  a  new set of "El Torito" boot parame­
              ters.  This allows to have more than one El  Torito
              boot  on  a  CD.   A  maximum  of 63 El Torito boot
              entries may be put on a single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies a comma separated  list  of  boot  images
              that  are  needed  to  make a bootable CD for sparc
              systems.  There may be empty fields  in  the  comma
              separated  list.  This option is required to make a
              bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If  the  -B  or
              -sparc-boot  option  has  been specified, the first
              sector of the resulting image will  contain  a  Sun
              disk  label.  This disk label specifies slice 0 for
              the iso9660 image and slice 1 ... slice 7  for  the
              boot  images  that  have  been  specified with this
              option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of the
              additional  boot images must contain a primary boot
              that works for the appropriate sparc  architecture.
              The  rest of each of the images usually contains an
              ufs filesystem that is  used  primary  kernel  boot

              The  implemented  boot  method  is  the boot method
              found with SunOS 4.x and SunOS  5.x.   However,  it
              does  not  depend  on  SunOS  internals but only on
              properties of the Open Boot prom. For this  reason,
              it  should  be  usable  for any OS that boots off a
              sparc system.

              If the special filename ...  is  used,  the  actual
              and all following boot partitions are mapped to the
              previous partition. If mkisofs is  called  with  -G
              image -B ...  all boot partitions are mapped to the
              partition  that  contains  the  iso9660  filesystem
              image and the generic boot image that is located in
              the first 16 sectors of the disk is  used  for  all

       -G generic_boot_image
              that contains a single partition.

              Specifies that the boot image used  to  create  "El
              Torito" bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The
              system will load and  execute  this  image  without
              performing any disk emulation.

              Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should be
              marked as not bootable. The system will provide  an
              emulated  drive  for the image, but will boot off a
              standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load  segment  address  of  the  boot
              image for no-emulation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies  the  number of "virtual" (512-byte) sec­
              tors to load in no-emulation mode.  The default  is
              to load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have
              problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

              Specifies that a 56-byte table with information  of
              the CD-ROM layout will be patched in at offset 8 in
              the boot file.  If this option is given,  the  boot
              file  is modified in the source filesystem, so make
              sure to make a copy if this file cannot  be  easily
              regenerated!   See  the  EL  TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE
              section for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed when mkisofs is used to  cre­
              ate a CDextra or the image of a second session or a
              higher level session for a multi session disk.  The
              option  -C takes a pair of two numbers separated by
              a comma. The first number is the sector  number  of
              the  first  sector  in the last session of the disk
              that should be appended to.  The second  number  is
              the starting sector number of the new session.  The
              expected pair of numbers may be retrieved by  call­
              ing  cdrecord -msinfo ...  If the -C option is used
              in conjunction with the  -M  option,  mkisofs  will
              create  a filesystem image that is intended to be a
              continuation of the previous session.   If  the  -C
              option  is used without the -M option, mkisofs will
              create a filesystem image that is  intended  to  be
              used  for  a second session on a CDextra. This is a
              multi session CD that holds audio data in the first
              session and a ISO9660 filesystem in the second ses­

              Check  all  filenames imported from old session for
              compliance with actual mkisofs iso9660 file  naming
              rules.   It  his  option is not present, only names
              with a length > 31 are checked as these files are a
              hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
              Check  all  old sessions for compliance with actual
              mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  This is a  high
              level  option that is a combination of the options:
              -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames  For  the  parameter
              FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
              Specifies  the Copyright file name.  This parameter
              can  also  be  set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc  with
              COPY=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the
              command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have  a
              This  violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens
              to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation,  and  instead
              just pack them in the way we see them.
              This  violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens
              to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides the mode of directories  used  to  create
              the image to mode.  Specifying this option automat­
              ically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

              Generate DVD-Video compliant UDF file system.  This
              is  done by sorting the order of the content of the
              appropriate files and by adding padding between the
              files  if needed.  Note that the sorting only works
              if the DVD-Video filenames include upper case char­
              acters only.

       -f     Follow  symbolic links when generating the filesys­
              tem.  When this option  is  not  in  use,  symbolic
              links  will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled,
              otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides the mode of regular files used to  create
              the image to mode.  Specifying this option automat­
              ically enables Rock Ridge extensions.
              unescaped  equal  sign. All occurrences of '\\' and
              '=' characters must be escaped with '\\' if -graft-
              points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide  glob  from  being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock
              Ridge directory.  glob is a  shell  wild-card-style
              pattern that must match any part of the filename or
              path.  Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.   If  glob
              matches  a  directory,  then  the  contents of that
              directory will be hidden.   In  order  to  match  a
              directory  name,  make  sure  the pathname does not
              include a trailing '/' character.  All  the  hidden
              files  will still be written to the output CD image
              file.  Should be used with the -hide-joliet option.
              See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-list file
              A  file  containing a list of globs to be hidden as

       -hidden glob
              Add  the  hidden  (existence)   ISO9660   directory
              attribute  for  glob.   This attribute will prevent
              glob from being listed on DOS based systems if  the
              /A  flag  is  not  used for the listing.  glob is a
              shell wild-card-style pattern that must  match  any
              part  of the filename or path.  In order to match a
              directory name, make sure  the  pathname  does  not
              include  a  trailing '/' character.  Multiple globs
              may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden
              attribute as above.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide  glob from being seen on the Joliet directory.
              glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern  that  must
              match  any  part of the filename or path.  Multiple
              globs may be hidden.  If glob matches a  directory,
              then the contents of that directory will be hidden.
              In order to match a directory name, make  sure  the
              pathname does not include a trailing '/' character.
              All the hidden files will still be written  to  the
              output  CD  image  file.   Should  be used with the
              -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be  hidden  as

              RR_MOVED  directory  at  all, you should use the -D
              option. Note that in case that the  -D  option  has
              been  specified,  the  resulting  filesystem is not
              ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be  readable
              on  MS-DOS.  See also NOTES section for more infor­
              mation on the RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters  used  in
              local  file  names.  To get a list of valid charset
              names, call mkisofs -input-charset help.  To get  a
              1:1  mapping,  you may use default as charset name.
              The default initial values are cp437 on  DOS  based
              systems  and  iso8859-1  on all other systems.  See
              CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output charset that  defines  the  characters  that
              will  be used in Rock Ridge file names. Defaults to
              the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below
              for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set  the  iso9660  conformance level. Valid numbers
              are 1..3 and 4.

              With level 1, files may only consist of one section
              and filenames are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With  level  2,  files may only consist of one sec­

              With  level  3,   no   restrictions   (other   than
              ISO-9660:1988) do apply.

              With  all  iso9660  levels from 1..3, all filenames
              are restricted to upper case letters,  numbers  and
              the  underscore (_). The maximum filename length is
              restricted to 31 characters, the directory  nesting
              level  is  restricted  to  8  and  the maximum path
              length is limited to 255 characters.

              Level 4 officially does not exists but mkisofs maps
              it to ISO-9690:1999 which is ISO-9690 version 2.

              With  level  4,  an enhanced volume descriptor with
              version number and file  structure  version  number
              set to 2 is emitted.  There may be more than 8 lev­
              els of directory nesting, there is no  need  for  a
              file  to contain a dot and the dot has no more spe­
              cial meaning, file names do not have  version  num­
              bers, the maximum length for files and directory is
              Windows-95  machines.   The  Joliet  filenames  are
              specified in Unicode and each path component can be
              up to 64 Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet
              is  no  standard - CD's that use only Joliet exten­
              sions but no standard  Rock  Ridge  extensions  may
              usually  only  be  used on Microsoft Win32 systems.
              Furthermore, the fact that the filenames  are  lim­
              ited to 64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses
              the UTF-16 coding  for  Unicode  characters  causes
              interoperability problems.

              Allow  Joliet  filenames  to  be  up to 103 Unicode
              characters. This breaks the Joliet specification  -
              but  appears  to work. Use with caution. The number
              103 is derived from: the maximum  Directory  Record
              Length  (254), minus the length of Directory Record
              (33), minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Informa­
              tion  (14),  divided  by  the UTF-16 character size

       -jcharset charset
              Same  as  using  -input-charset  charset   and   -J
              options.  See CHARACTER SETS section below for more

       -l     Allow full 31 character  filenames.   Normally  the
              ISO9660  filename will be in an 8.3 format which is
              compatible with MS-DOS,  even  though  the  ISO9660
              standard  allows  filenames of up to 31 characters.
              If you use this option, the disc may  be  difficult
              to  use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy
              on some other systems (such  as  the  Amiga).   Use
              with caution.

       -L     Allow  ISO9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.
              Usually, a leading dot is replaced with  an  under­
              score in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
              This  violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens
              to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect all error, warning and informational  mes­
              sages to log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude  glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is
              a shell wild-card-style  pattern  that  must  match
              part  of  the filename (not the path as with option
              -x).   Technically  glob  is  matched  against  the
              d->d_name  part  of  the directory entry.  Multiple
              globs may be excluded.  Example:

       -exclude-list file
              A  file containing a list of globs to be exclude as

              Allow 37 chars in iso9660 filenames.   This  option
              forces  the  -N  option  as the extra name space is
              taken from the space reserved for ISO-9660  version
              This  violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens
              to work on many  systems.   Although  a  conforming
              application  needs  to provide a buffer space of at
              least 37 characters, disks created with this option
              may  cause a buffer overflow in the reading operat­
              ing system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device
              Specifies path to  existing  iso9660  image  to  be
              merged.  The  alternate  form  takes  a SCSI device
              specifier that uses the same  syntax  as  the  dev=
              parameter  of cdrecord.  The output of mkisofs will
              be a new session which should get  written  to  the
              end  of  the image specified in -M.  Typically this
              requires multi-session capability for the  recorder
              and  cdrom  drive  that you are attempting to write
              this image to.  This option may  only  be  used  in
              conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660  standard,  but no one
              really uses the version numbers anyway.   Use  with

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Mode  to  use  when creating new directories in the
              iso fs image.  The default mode is 0555.


              Do not include backup files files  on  the  iso9660
              filesystem.   If  the  -no-bak option is specified,
              files that contain the characters '~' or '#' or end
              in '.bak' will not be included (these are typically
              backup files for editors under unix).

              Do not use  the  automatic  Rock  Ridge  attributes
              recognition  for  previous sessions.  This helps to

              Don't split the SL fields, but begin a new Continu­
              ation Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space,
              but  the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver
              have a bug in reading split SL fields (a `/' can be

       -o filename
              is  the  name  of  the  file  to  which the iso9660
              filesystem image should be written.  This can be  a
              disk  file,  a  tape  drive,  or  it can correspond
              directly to the device name  of  the  optical  disc
              writer.   If  not  specified, stdout is used.  Note
              that the output can also be a block special  device
              for  a  regular  disk drive, in which case the disk
              partition can be mounted  and  examined  to  ensure
              that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300
              kB).  If the option -B is used,  then  there  is  a
              padding  at  the  end  of the iso9660 partition and
              before the beginning of the boot  partitions.   The
              size  of  this  padding is chosen to make the first
              boot partition start on a sector number that  is  a
              multiple of 16.

              The  padding  is  needed  as many operating systems
              (e.g. Linux) implement read  ahead  bugs  in  their
              filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on
              one or more files that are located at the end of  a
              track.  They  are  usually  present  when the CD is
              written in Track at Once mode or when the  disk  is
              written  as mixed mode CD where an audio track fol­
              lows the data track.

              To avoid problems with I/O error on the  last  file
              on  the  filesystem,  the -pad option has been made
              the default.

              Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB)  and  do
              not  make the the boot partitions start on a multi­
              ple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A file containing a list  of  pathspec  directories
              and  filenames  to be added to the ISO9660 filesys­
              tem. This list of pathspecs are processed after any
              that appear on the command line. If the argument is
              -, then the list is read from the standard input.

              and phone number.  There is space on the  disc  for
              128  characters of information.  This parameter can
              also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.   If
              specified  in both places, the command line version
              is used.

              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the
              sector  size  (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is
              needed for Disk At Once mode  and  with  some  CD-R
              drives when piping directly into cdrecord.  In this
              case it is needed to know the size of the  filesys­
              tem  before  the  actual  CD-creation is done.  The
              option -print-size allows to get this size  from  a
              "dry-run"  before  the CD is actually written.  Old
              versions of  mkisofs  did  write  this  information
              (among other information) to stderr.  As this turns
              out to be hard to parse,  the  number  without  any
              other information is now printed on stdout too.  If
              you like to write a simple shell  script,  redirect
              stderr  and catch the number from stdout.  This may
              be done with:

              cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

              mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No  progress
              output will be provided.

       -R     Generate  SUSP  and RR records using the Rock Ridge
              protocol to  further  describe  the  files  on  the
              iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This  is like the -R option, but file ownership and
              modes are set to more useful values.  The  uid  and
              gid  are set to zero, because they are usually only
              useful on the author's system, and  not  useful  to
              the  client.   All the file read bits are set true,
              so that files and directories are globally readable
              on  the  client.   If  any execute bit is set for a
              file, set all of the execute bits, so that executa­
              bles are globally executable on the client.  If any
              search bit is set for a directory, set all  of  the
              search  bits,  so  that  directories  are  globally
              searchable on  the  client.   All  write  bits  are
              cleared,  because  the CD-Rom will be mounted read-
              only in any case.  If any of the special mode  bits
              are  set,  clear  them,  because file locks are not
              useful on a read-only file system, and set-id  bits
              are not desirable for uid 0 or gid 0.  When used on
              Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is
              trolled  by a file that contains pairs of filenames
              and sorting offset weighting.  If the weighting  is
              higher,  the  file  will  be  located closer to the
              beginning of the media, if the weighting is  lower,
              the  file  will be located closer to the end of the
              media. There must be only one space or tabs charac­
              ter  between  the  filename  and the weight and the
              weight must be the last characters on a  line.  The
              filename  is taken to include all the characters up
              to, but not including the last space or tab charac­
              ter  on  a line. This is to allow for space charac­
              ters to be in, or at the end of a  filename.   This
              option  does  not  sort the order of the file names
              that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts  the
              order  in  which the file data is written to the CD
              image - which may be useful in  order  to  optimize
              the  data  layout on a CD. See README.sort for more

              Split  the  output  image  into  several  files  of
              approximately 1 GB.  This helps to create DVD sized
              iso9660 images on operating systems  without  large
              file  support.  Cdrecord will concatenate more than
              one file into a single track if writing to  a  DVD.
              To  make -split-output work, the -o filename option
              must be specified. The resulting outout images will
              be named: filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
              Select  streaming  operation and set the media size
              to # sectors.  This allows you to pipe  the  output
              of  the  tar  program  into mkisofs and to create a
              iso9660 filesystem without the need of an  interme­
              diate  tar  archive  file.  If this option has been
              specified, mkisofs reads from stdin and  creates  a
              file with the name STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of
              the file (with padding) is 200  sectors  less  than
              the specified media size. If -no-pad has been spec­
              ified, the file size is 50 sectors  less  than  the
              specified media size.  If the file is smaller, then
              mkisofs will write padding. This may take a  while.

              The   option   -stream-media-size   creates  simple
              iso9660 filesystems only and may not used  together
              with multi-session or hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies  the  system ID.  This parameter can also
              stage boot image to be used when  making  a  "SILO"
              bootable  CD.  The pathname must be relative to the
              source path specified to mkisofs.  The  default  is
              boot/cd.b  The boot image must come from SILO 0.8.7
              and higher.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on  the
              CDROM,  which can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable
              systems to help establish the correct  file  names.
              There  is also information present in the file that
              indicates the major and minor numbers for block and
              character devices, and each symlink has the name of
              the link file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
              Alternative  translation  table  file   name   (see
              above). Implies the -T option.  If you are creating
              a multi-session image you must use the same name as
              in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set  Unicode  conformance  level in the Joliet SVD.
              The default level is 3.  It  may  be  set  to  1..3
              using this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  support  in  the generated filesystem
              image.  UDF support is currently  in  alpha  status
              and  for  this reason, it is not possible to create
              UDF only images.  UDF data structures are currently
              coupled to the Joliet structures, so there are many
              pitfalls with the current implementation. There  is
              no  UID/GID  support,  there is no POSIX permission
              support, there is no support  for  symlinks.   Note
              that UDF wastes the space from sector ~20 to sector
              256 at the beginning of the disk in addition to the
              spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides the uid read from the source files to the
              value of uid.  Specifying this option automatically
              enables Rock Ridge extensions.

              The  option  -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use
              file version numbers from the filesystem.   If  the
              option  is not specified, mkisofs creates a version
              number of 1  for  all  files.   File  versions  are
              strings  in  the  range ;1 to ;32767 This option is
              the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows "Untranslated" filenames, completely violat­
              ing  the  iso9660 standards described above. Forces
              to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to
              be  written  into the master block.  This parameter
              can  also  be  set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc  with
              VOLI=id.   If specified in both places, the command
              line version is used.  Note that if  you  assign  a
              volume  ID,  this  is the name that will be used as
              the mount point used by the Solaris volume  manage­
              ment  system  and  the name that is assigned to the
              disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
              Specifies the volset ID.  This parameter  can  also
              be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.
              If specified in both places, the command line  ver­
              sion is used.

       -volset-size #
              Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size
              is the number of CD's that are in a  CD  set.   The
              -volset-size option may be used to create CD's that
              are part of e.g. a  Operation  System  installation
              set of CD's.  The option -volset-size must be spec­
              ified before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets the volume set sequence number to #.  The vol­
              ume  set sequence number is the index number of the
              current CD in a CD set.   The  option  -volset-size
              must be specified before -volset-seqno on each com­
              mand line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice  on  the  command
              line, extra debug information will be printed.

       -x path
              Exclude  path  from  being  written to CDROM.  path
              must be the complete  pathname  that  results  from
              concatenating  the  pathname  given as command line
              argument and the path relative to  this  directory.
              Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

              NOTE:  The -m and -x option description should both
              be updated, they are wrong.  Both now work  identi­
              cal  and  use filename globbing. A file is excluded
              if either the last component matches or  the  whole
              path matches.


       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should
              be used in conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or
              the various double dash options given below.

       -apple Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Simi­
              lar  to  the  -hfs  option,  except  that the Apple
              Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of creating
              an  HFS hybrid volume.  Former mkisofs versions did
              include Rock Ridge attributes by default if  -apple
              was specified. This versions of mkisofs does not do
              this anymore.  If  you  like  to  have  Rock  Ridge
              attributes, you need to specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use  the  mapping_file  to set the CREATOR and TYPE
              information for a  file  based  on  the  filename's
              extension.  A  filename is mapped only if it is not
              one of the know Apple/Unix file  formats.  See  the
              HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The  CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a
              file's magic number (usually the first few bytes of
              a  file).  The magic_file is only used if a file is
              not one of the known Apple/Unix  file  formats,  or
              the  filename  extension  has not been mapped using
              the -map option. See the HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section
              below for more details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
              Set  the  default  CREATOR  for  all files. Must be
              exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE sec­
              tion below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
              Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly
              4 characters.  See  the  HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section
              below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents  of  files  for all the known
              Apple/Unix file formats.   See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH
              FILE  FORMATS  section  below  for more about these
              formats.  However, the only way to check for MacBi­
              nary  and  AppleSingle  files  is  to open and read
              them. Therefore this option may increase processing
              time.  It  is better to use one or more double dash
              options given below if the  Apple/Unix  formats  in
              use are known.

              Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desk­
              section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition  table.  By  default,  no
              partition table is generated, but some older Macin­
              tosh CDROM drivers need an HFS partition  table  on
              the CDROM to be able to recognize a hybrid CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make  the  HFS  CD  use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart
              feature to launch an application or  document.  The
              given  filename  must  be the name of a document or
              application located at the top level of the CD. The
              filename  must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set the size in bytes of the cluster or  allocation
              units  of PC Exchange files. Implies the --exchange
              option. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS  section

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide  glob  from the HFS volume. The file or direc­
              tory will still exist in the ISO9660 and/or  Joliet
              directory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern
              that must match any part of the  filename  Multiple
              globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs  -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foo­

              would exclude all files ending in  ".o"  or  called
              "foobar"  from the HFS volume. Note that if you had
              a directory called "foobar" it too (and  of  course
              all  its  descendants) would be excluded.  The glob
              can also be a path  name  relative  to  the  source
              directories given on the command line. Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would  exclude  just  the  file or directory called
              "html" from the "src" directory. Any other file  or
              directory  called  "html"  in  the tree will not be
              excluded.  Should be used  with  the  -hide  and/or
              -hide-joliet  options.   In order to match a direc­
              tory name, make sure the pathname does not  include
              a  trailing '/' character. See README.hide for more

       -hide-hfs-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be  hidden  as

       -root-info file
              Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions,
              folder View etc. for the root folder of an HFS vol­
              ume.  See  README.rootinfo  for  more  information.

       -prep-boot FILE
              PReP boot image file. Up  to  4  are  allowed.  See
              README.prep_boot (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input  charset  that defines the characters used in
              HFS file names when used with the -mac-name option.
              The  default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000
              (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER SETS  and  HFS  MACINTOSH
              FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output  charset  that  defines  the characters that
              will be used in the HFS file names. Defaults to the
              input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for
              more details.

              By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume  that
              is  locked.  This option leaves the volume unlocked
              so that other  applications  (e.g.   hfsutils)  can
              modify the volume. See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
              section below for warnings about using this option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless"  the given directory (folder). This is usu­
              ally the System Folder and is used in creating  HFS
              bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the
              whole path name as mkisofs sees  it.  e.g.  if  the
              given  pathspec is ./cddata and the required folder
              is called System Folder, then the whole  path  name
              is "./cddata/System Folder" (remember to use quotes
              if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
              Override certain parameters used to create the  HFS
              file  system. Unlikely to be used in normal circum­
              stances. See the  libhfs_iso/hybrid.h  source  file
              for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP
              Apple/Unix file formats  only.  Searching  for  the
              other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled,
              unless other double dash options are given.

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

              Look for XINET Macintosh files

              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software  Systems  DAVE  Macintosh

       --sfm  Look  for  Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files
              (NT only) (Alpha)

              Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

              Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files


       mkisofs processes file names in a POSIX compliant  way  as
       strings of 8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for
       all languages, 8-bit characters are not  sufficient.  Uni­
       code  or  ISO-10646  define character codings that need at
       least 21 bits to represent all known languages.  They  may
       be  represented  with  UTF-32,  UTF-16  or  UTF-8  coding.
       UTF-32 uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to  be  uncom­
       mon.  UTF-16 is used by Microsoft with Win32 with the dis­
       advantage that it only supports a subset of all codes  and
       that  16-bit  characters  are not compliant with the POSIX
       filesystem interface.

       Modern UNIX operating systems may  use  UTF-8  coding  for
       filenames.  This coding allows to use the complete Unicode
       code set.  Each 32-bit character is represented by one  or
       more  8-bit  characters.   If  a  character  is  coded  in
       ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North  America)  is
       maps  1:1  to  a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.
       If a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used  in  USA  and
       other  countries with limted character set) is maps 1:1 to
       a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode character.   Char­
       acter codes that cannot be represented as a single byte in
       UTF-8 (typically if  the  value  is  >  0x7F)  use  escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If  all  operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs
       would not need to recode characters in file names.  Unfor­
       Unfortunately even this does not follow ISO standards that
       reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control  characters  and
       only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use,
       only a small subset are represented in  a  character  set.
       Therefore  the same character code may represent a differ­
       ent character in different character sets. So a file  name
       generated, say in central Europe, may not display the same
       character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating sys­
       tems use different character sets for the region  or  lan­
       guage.  For  example  the character code for "small e with
       acute accent" may be character code 0x82  on  a  PC,  code
       0x8e  on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while the codings used on a PC  or  Mac  are  nonstandard,
       Unicode  codes  this  character  as  0x00000000e9 which is
       basically the same value as the value used  by  most  UNIX

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will
       use the Unicode character set as the basis for file  names
       in  a  unique  way,  it  may be necessary to specify which
       character set your file names use in and  which  character
       set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There  are  four options to specify the character sets you
       want to use:

              Defines the local character set you  are  using  on
              your  host  machine.  Any character set conversions
              that take place will use this character set as  the
              staring point. The default input character sets are
              cp437 on DOS based systems  and  iso8859-1  on  all
              other systems.

              If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equiva­
              lents of the input character set will  be  used  in
              the Joliet directory. Using the -jcharset option is
              the  same  as  using  the  -input-charset  and   -J

              Defines  the  character  set that will be used with
              for the Rock Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the
              input  character  set.  Only likely to be useful if
              used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using mkisofs  on
              a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge CDs.
              If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine,  it  is
              likely  that  the  output character set will be the
              the input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to  mkisofs.
       To get a listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of
       the character set options by  giving  a  filename  as  the
       argument  to the options. The given file will only be read
       if its name does not match one of the built  in  character

       The  format  of the character set files is the same as the
       mapping files available  from  http://www.unicode.org/Pub­
       lic/MAPPINGS The format of these files is:

            Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
            Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
            Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the
       above format or comments lines (starting with the #  char­
       acter) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input
       code is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE  (UTF-16)
       or  32  bit UNICODE (UTF-32) coding because this coding is
       not POSIX compliant. There should  be  support  for  UTF-8
       UNICODE  coding which is compatible to POSIX filenames and
       supported by moder UNIX implementations such as Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined  by  using  the
       keyword  default  as  the argument to any of the character
       set options. This is the behaviour of older  (v1.12)  ver­
       sions of mkisofs.

       The  ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames
       are not  converted  from  the  input  character  set.  The
       ISO9660  character  set  is  a  very limited subset of the
       ASCII characters, so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any  character  that  mkisofs  can  not  convert  will  be
       replaced with a '_' character.


       A  Macintosh  file  has  two properties associated with it
       which define which application created the file, the  CRE­
       ATOR  and what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are
       (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this allows  a  Macin­
       tosh user to double-click on a file and launch the correct
       application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file
       can  be found by using something like ResEdit (or similar)

       If  a  mapping  or  magic file is not used, or no match is
       found then the default CREATOR and TYPE  for  all  regular
       files  can  be set by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file
       or using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options, other­
       wise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

       The  format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format
       as used by aufs.  This  file  has  five  columns  for  the
       extension,  file  translation,  CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.
       Lines starting with the '#' character  are  comment  lines
       and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"


              The  first  column  EXTN  defines the Unix filename
              extension to be mapped. The default mapping for any
              filename  extension  that  doesn't match is defined
              with the "*" character.

              The Xlate column defines the type of text  transla­
              tion  between  the  Unix  and  Macintosh file it is
              ignored by mkisofs, but is kept  to  be  compatible
              with  aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not alter the
              contents of a file, if a binary file has it's  TYPE
              set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Mac­
              intosh. Therefore a better choice for  the  default
              TYPE may be '????'

              The  CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters
              long and enclosed in single quotes.

              The comment field is enclosed in double quotes - it
              is ignored by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible
              with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost  identical  to  the
       magic(4) file used by the Linux file(1) command - the rou­
       tines for reading and decoding the magic file are based on
       the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for the byte off­
       set, type, test and message.  Lines starting with the  '#'
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in  the  magic(4)  man
       page.  The  only difference here is that for each entry in
       the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be
       4  characters for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for
       the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any other
       characters  on  this line are ignored.  Continuation lines
       (starting with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the  ini­
       tial offset lines are used.

       Using  the  -magic  option may significantly increase pro­
       cessing time as each file has to opened and read  to  find
       it's magic number.

       In  summary,  for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix'
       and the default TYPE is 'TEXT'.  These can be  changed  by
       using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-
       creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one of the  known  Apple/Unix  formats
       (and  the  format has been selected), then the CREATOR and
       TYPE are taken from the values stored  in  the  Apple/Unix

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their
       file name extension (the -map option), or their magic num­
       ber  (the  -magic option). If the default match is used in
       the mapping file, then these values override  the  default
       CREATOR and TYPE.

       A   full   CREATOR/TYPE   database   can   be   found   at


       Macintosh  files  have  two  parts  called  the  Data  and
       Resource  fork.  Either may be empty. Unix (and many other
       OSs) can only cope with files having one part  (or  fork).
       To   add  to  this,  Macintosh  files  have  a  number  of
       attributes associated with them - probably the most impor­
       tant  are  the TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept
       of these types of attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the  image
       is  stored in the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored
       in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the
       data fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore  to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem,
       a way has to be found to cope with the two forks  and  the
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in
              a  file  with  same  name prefixed with "%". Finder
              info also stored in same "%"  file.  Netatalk  uses
              the  same  format, but the resource fork/finderinfo
              stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same  name
              as data fork.

              Data structures similar to above, except both forks
              and finder info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork  and
              finder  info  together  in  subdirectory .rsrc with
              same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
              Very similar to  the  EtherShare  format,  but  the
              finder info is stored slightly differently.

              Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used  by  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on DOS
              (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a file.  Resource
              fork     in     subdirectory    resource.frk    (or
              RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as one  record  in  file
              finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for
              each data fork directory.

              Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT  cluster
              size  of the disk that the PC Exchange files are on
              (or have been copied from). This size is  given  by
              the  -cluster-size  option.  The cluster or alloca­
              tion size can be found by  using  the  DOS  utility

              May  not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files
              (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS  media  containing
              PC  Exchange  files should be mounted as type msdos
              (not vfat) when using Linux.

              Used by SGI machines when  they  mount  HFS  disks.
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdi­
              rectory .HSResource with same name. Finder info  as
              one record in file .HSancillary. Separate .HSancil­
              lary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              format.  If  an HFS file or folder stored on the NT
              server contains an  illegal  NT  character  in  its
              name,  then NT converts these characters to Private
              Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / <
              >  ?   |  also  a space or period if it is the last
              character of the file name, character codes 0x01 to
              0x1f (control characters) and Apple' apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are
              not readable by the mkisofs NT  executable.  There­
              fore  any  file  or directory name containing these
              characters will be ignored - including the contents
              of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
              When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X
              on to a non-HFS file system (e.g. UFS,  NFS  etc.),
              the  files  are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data
              fork stored in a file. Resource fork  stored  in  a
              file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder info
              also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not  really  an  Apple/Unix  encoding,  but  actual
              HFS/HFS+  files  on  a  MacOS  X  system. Data fork
              stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a  pseudo
              file  with  the  same name with the suffix '/rsrc'.
              The finderinfo is only  available  via  a  MacOS  X
              library call.

              Notes: (also see README.macosx)

              Only works when used on MacOS X.

              If a file is found with a zero length resource fork
              and empty finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any
              Apple/Unix  encoding - therefore a TYPE and CREATOR
              can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR,  TYPE,  date  and
       possibly  other  flags from the finder info. Additionally,
       if it exists, the  Macintosh  filename  is  set  from  the
       finder  info, otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the
       Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE  NAMES  section

       When  using  the  -apple  option, the TYPE and CREATOR are
       stored in the optional System Use or  SUSP  field  in  the
       ISO9660  Directory  Record  -  in much the same way as the
       Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy,  the
       Apple  extensions are added at the beginning of the exist­
       ing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get  the  Apple  exten­

       In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead
       of the -apple option, as the latter  imposes  the  limited
       ISO9660  characters  allowed  in  filenames.  However, the
       Apple extensions do give the advantage that the files  are
       packed on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible
       to fit more files on a CD - important when the total  size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.


       Where  possible,  the  HFS filename that is stored with an
       Apple/Unix file is used for the HFS part of the  CD.  How­
       ever, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS file­
       name with the finderinfo. In these cases, the  Unix  file­
       name  is  used  - with escaped special characters. Special
       characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs escapes these characters by using ":" followed by the
       character code as two hex digits. Netatalk and  EtherShare
       have a similar scheme, but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If  mkisofs  can't  find an HFS filename, then it uses the
       Unix name, with any %xx or :xx characters (xx ==  two  hex
       digits)  converted to a single character code. If "xx" are
       not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are left  alone  -
       although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the HFS directory separator. Care must  be  taken,  as  an
       ordinary Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper  and  lower
       case letters, the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the
       filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found
       in  a  directory with the same HFS name, then mkisofs will
       attempt, where possible, to make a unique name  by  adding
       '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use
       this name as the starting point for  the  ISO9660,  Joliet
       and  Rock Ridge filenames using the -mac-name option. Nor­
       mal Unix files without an HFS name will  still  use  their
       Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someim­
       TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS file name  to  a
       Joliet/Rock  Ridge  file  name  defaults  to  cp10000 (Mac
       Roman).  The character set used can be specified using the
       -input-hfs-charset  option.  Other  built in HFS character
       sets  are:  cp10006  (MacGreek),  cp10007   (MacCyrillic),
       cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081

       Note: the character codes used by  HFS  file  names  taken
       from  the various Apple/Unix formats will not be converted
       as they are assumed to be in the correct  Apple  character
       set. Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS
       file names will be converted.

       The existing mkisofs code  will  filter  out  any  illegal
       characters  for  the  ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as
       mkisofs expects to be dealing directly with Unix names, it
       leaves  the Rock Ridge names as is.  But as '/' is a legal
       HFS filename character, the -mac-name option converts  '/'
       to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the  Apple  extensions are used, then only the ISO9660
       filenames will appear on the Macintosh.  However,  as  the
       Macintosh  ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, then
       you can use options like -allow-multidot without  problems
       on a Macintosh - still take care over the names, for exam­
       ple this.file.name will be  converted  to  THIS.FILE  i.e.
       only  have one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as
       ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen  as  ABCDEFGHI.   i.e.
       with  a '.' at the end - don't know if this is a Macintosh
       problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All filenames will be
       in  upper  case  when  viewed  on  a Macintosh. Of course,
       DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2  file­


       To  give  a  HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top
       level) folder includes a standard  Macintosh  volume  icon
       file.  To  give  a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an
       icon has to be pasted over the volume's icon in  the  "Get
       Info"  box  of  the volume. This creates an invisible file
       called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return'  character)
       in the root folder.

       A  custom  folder icon is very similar - an invisible file
       called 'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to  create  a  custom  icon  that
       mkisofs can use, is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a
       ter. e.g.

                  hmount /dev/fd0
                  hdir -a
                  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then  run
       mkisofs by using something like:

                  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure  for  creating/using custom folder icons is
       very similar - paste an icon to folder's  "Get  Info"  box
       and  transfer  the resulting 'Icon\r' file to the relevant
       directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the  ISO9660  and
       Joliet trees.

       To  give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instruc­
       tions      found      at:       http://www.fadden.com/cdr­


       It  may  be  possible  to make the hybrid CD bootable on a

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible)
       driver, a bootable HFS partition and the necessary System,
       Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable
       CD-ROM  using the apple_driver utility. This file can then
       be used with the -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our case)  must
       contain  a  suitable System Folder, again from another CD-
       ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it  must  have  it's  boot
       block  set. The boot block is in the first two blocks of a
       partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block  is
       full  of  zeros. Normally, when a System file is copied to
       partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot  block  is  filled
       with a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't
       know the full spec for the boot  block,  so  I'm  guessing
       that the following will work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot
       block from the first HFS partition it finds on  the  given
       CD-ROM  and  this is used for the HFS partition created by
       recreated!  This file contains pointers which may  not  be
       easily or reliably obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of this table is as follows; all integers are
       in section 7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words  in
       the  boot  file  starting  at  byte offset 64.  All linear
       block addresses (LBAs) are given in CD  sectors  (normally
       2048 bytes).


       mkisofs  looks  for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the cur­
       rent working directory, then in the user's home directory,
       and  then  in the directory in which the mkisofs binary is
       stored.  This file is assumed to contain a series of lines
       of  the  form  TAG=value , and in this way you can specify
       certain options.  The case of the tag is not  significant.
       Some  fields  in the volume header are not settable on the
       command line, but can be altered  through  this  facility.
       Comments  may  be  placed  in this file, using lines which
       start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The  application  identifier  should  describe  the
              application  that  will  be  on the disc.  There is
              space on the disc for 128  characters  of  informa­
              tion.   May be overridden using the -A command line

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name of a file
              on the disc containing the copyright notice.  There
              is space in the disc for 37 characters of  informa­
              tion.   May be overridden using the -copyright com­
              mand line option.

       ABST   The abstract information, often the name of a  file
              on the disc containing an abstract.  There is space
              in the disc for 37 characters of information.   May
              be  overridden  using  the  -abstract  command line

       BIBL   The bibliographic information, often the name of  a
              file  on the disc containing a bibliography.  There
              is space in the disc for 37 characters of  informa­
              tion.   May  be overridden using the -bilio command

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on the  disc
              for  32 characters of information.  May be overrid­
              den using the -sysid command line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the  disc
              for  32 characters of information.  May be overrid­
              den using the -V command line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for 128 characters of information.  May be overrid­
              den using the -volset command line option.

              The default  TYPE  for  Macintosh  files.  Must  be
              exactly  4 characters.  May be overridden using the
              -hfs-type command line option.

              The default CREATOR for Macintosh  files.  Must  be
              exactly  4 characters.  May be overridden using the
              -hfs-creator command line option.

       mkisofs can  also  be  configured  at  compile  time  with
       defaults   for   many  of  these  fields.   See  the  file


       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the  file
       cd.iso,  where  the  directory cd_dir will become the root
       directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions  of  the  source
       directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source
       directory cd_dir where all files have at least  read  per­
       mission and all files are owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write  a  tar archive directly to a CD that will later
       contain a simple iso9660 filesystem with the  tar  archive

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660',
       from the source directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files
       in  all  the  known  Apple/Unix format are decoded and any
       other files are given CREATOR  and  TYPE  based  on  their
       magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
               cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that
       all have the name README, but have different contents when
       seen as a ISO9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory
       cd_dir on the CD along with the three README files  -  but
       only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
               -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
               -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
               -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
               README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
               README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS
       CD  and  the  other two README files will be hidden. Simi­
       larly for the Joliet and ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange  results  possible
       with combinations of the hide options ...


       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix,
       because we must generate a complete  copy of  an  existing
       filesystem on a disk in the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name
       mkisofs is probably a bit of a misnomer, since it not only
       creates  the filesystem, but it also populates it as well.
       However, the appropriate tool name for a  UNIX  tool  that
       creates  populated  filesystems  -  mkproto  - is not well

       Eric       Youngdale       <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu>       or
       <eric@andante.org>  wrote  the  first  versions  (1993 ...
       1998) of the mkisofs utility.  The copyright for old  ver­
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid  root.  This  may  be
       needed  to allow mkisofs to read the previous session when
       creating a multi session image.

       If mkisofs is creating a filesystem image with Rock  Ridge
       attributes  and  the directory nesting level of the source
       directory tree is too much for ISO-9660, mkisofs  will  do
       deep  directory  relocation.   This results in a directory
       called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD. You  can­
       not avoid this directory.


       ·      Any  files that have hard links to files not in the
              tree being copied to the  iso9660  filesystem  will
              have an incorrect file reference count.

       ·      Does  not  check for SUSP record(s) in "." entry of
              the root directory to verify the existence of  Rock
              Ridge enhancements.

              This  problem  is present when reading old sessions
              while adding data in multi-session mode.

       ·      Does not properly  read  relocated  directories  in
              multi-session mode when adding data.

              Any  relocated  deep  directory  is lost if the new
              session does not include the deep directory.

              Repeat by: create first session with deep directory
              relocation  then  add new session with a single dir
              that differs from the old deep path.

       ·      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when  doing  multi-session
              from TRANS.TBL

       ·      Does  not  create  whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in
              multi-session mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to  the


       I have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the
       modified libhfs routines to work,  however  there  may  be
       situations  that  either  I  haven't  thought  of, or come
       across when these assumptions  fail.   Therefore  I  can't
       guarantee  that  mkisofs will work as expected (although I
       haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features
       work  fine,  however, some are not fully tested. These are
       marked as Alpha above.
       involved).  It  is  not  possible to use a new name for an
       Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g.  If  a  Apple/Unix
       encoded  file called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then
       you can not use the command line:

              mkisofs  -o  output.raw  -hfs  -graft-points   new­
              name=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs  will  be unable to decode "oldname". However, you
       can graft Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as  long
       as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options,
       -M and -C, only files in the last session will be  in  the
       HFS  volume.  i.e. mkisofs can not add existing files from
       previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with the -part option,
       then  each  session  will  appear as separate volumes when
       mounted on a Mac. In this case, it is worth using  the  -V
       or  -hfs-volid option to give each session a unique volume
       name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on  the  Desktop
       with the same name.

       Symbolic  links  (as with all other non-regular files) are
       not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger  than  pure  ISO9660  volumes
       containing  the  same  data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized
       volumes) the hybrid volume may be significantly larger. As
       an  HFS  volume  gets bigger, so does the allocation block
       size (the smallest amount of space  a  file  can  occupy).
       For  a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb
       DVD it will be about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in  an  HFS  volume  is  about
       65500 - although the real limit will be somewhat less than

       The resulting hybrid volume can  be  accessed  on  a  Unix
       machine  by  using  the  hfsutils  routines.  However,  no
       changes can be made to the volume as it is set as  locked.
       The option -hfs-unlock will create an output image that is
       unlocked - however no changes should be made to  the  con­
       tents  of  the volume (unless you really know what you are
       doing) as it's not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not  currently  work  with
       the  -T  option  -  the  Unix  name  will  be  used in the
       TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if
       It is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-
       boot  options  with  the  -boot-hfs-file   or   -prep-boot

       mkisofs  should  be  able to create HFS hybrid images over
       4Gb, although this has not been fully tested.


       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).


       Some sort of gui interface.


       mkisofs is available as part of the cdrecord package  from

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is available as part of the zisofs-tools package
       from ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/


       If you want to actively take part on  the  development  of
       mkisofs, and/or mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mail­
       ing list by sending mail to:


       and include the word subscribe  in  the  body.   The  mail
       address of the list is:



       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       James Pearson


       If you have support questions, send them to:


Version 2.01               14 Feb 2003                 MKISOFS(8)



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