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       gpart [options] device

       Options:  [-b  <backup MBR>][-C c,h,s][-c][-d][-E][-e][-f]
       [-g][-h][-i][-K <last-sector>][-k <# of sectors>] [-L] [-l
       <log  file>][-n  <increment>]  [-q][-s  <sector-size>] [-t
       <module-name>][-V][-v]  [-W   <device>][-w   <module-name,


       gpart  tries to guess which partitions are on a hard disk.
       If the primary partition table has been lost,  overwritten
       or  destroyed  the  partitions still exist on the disk but
       the operating system cannot access them.

       gpart ignores the primary partition table  and  scans  the
       disk (or disk image, file) sector after sector for several
       filesystem/partition  types.  It  does  so   by   "asking"
       filesystem  recognition  modules  if  they  think  a given
       sequence of sectors resembles the beginning of a  filesys­
       tem  or partition type. Currently the following filesystem
       types are known to gpart (listed by module names) :

       beos   BeOS filesystem type.

       bsddl  FreeBSD/NetBSD/386BSD  disklabel   sub-partitioning
              scheme used on Intel platforms.

       ext2   Linux second extended filesystem.

       fat    MS-DOS FAT12/16/32 "filesystems".

       hpfs   IBM OS/2 High Performance filesystem.

       hmlvm  Linux  LVM physical volumes (LVM by Heinz Mauelsha­

       lswap  Linux swap partitions (versions 0 and 1).

       minix  The Minix operating system filesystem type.

       ntfs   MS Windows NT/2000 filesystem.

       qnx4   QNX 4.x filesystem.

       rfs    The Reiser filesystem (version 3.5.X, X > 11).

       s86dl  Sun Solaris on Intel platforms  uses  a  sub-parti­
              tioning  scheme on PC hard disks similar to the BSD

       still guess a type x.

       No  checks  are  performed  whether  a found filesystem is
       clean or even consistent/mountable, so it is quite  possi­
       ble that gpart may identify partitions which existed prior
       to the current partitioning scheme of the disk. Especially
       on  large disks old file system headers/superblocks may be
       present a long time until  they  are  finally  overwritten
       with user data.

       It  should  be  stressed  that gpart does a very heuristic
       job, never believe its  output  without  any  plausability
       checks. It can be easily right in its guesswork but it can
       also be terribly wrong. You have been warned.

       After having found a list of possible partition types, the
       list  is checked for consistency. For example, a partition
       which overlaps with the previous one  will  be  discarded.
       All remaining partitions are labelled with one of the fol­
       lowing attributes:  "primary",  "logical",  "orphaned"  or

       A  partition  labelled  "orphaned"  is a logical partition
       which seems ok but is missed in the chain of logical  par­
       titions.  This may occur if a logical partition is deleted
       from the extended partition table without overwriting  the
       actual disk space.

       An  "invalid"  partition  is  one  that cannot be accepted
       because of various reasons. If a consistent primary parti­
       tion  table  was created in this process it is printed and
       can be written to a file or device.


       If the disk/file to be examined consists of primary parti­
       tions  only,  gpart  has  quite  a good chance to identify
       them. Extended partitions on the other hand can result  in
       a lot of problems.

       Extended  partitions  are  realized  as  a  linked list of
       extended partition tables, each of which include an  entry
       pointing  to  a logical partition. The size of an extended
       partition depends on  where  the  last  logical  partition
       ends.  This  means  that  extended  partitions may include
       "holes", unallocated  disk  space  which  should  only  be
       assigned to logical, not primary partitions.

       gpart tries to do its best to check a found chain of logi­
       cal partitions but there are very many possible points  of
       failure.  If  "good"  fdisk  programs  are  used to create
       extended partitions, the resulting  tables  consist  of  a
       Investigating disks from machines with a different endian­
       ness than the scanning one has not been tested at all, and
       is currently not recommended.


       gpart  relies  on the OS reporting the correct disk geome­
       try.  Unfortunately sometimes the OS may report a geometry
       smaller the the actual one (e.g. disks with more than 1024
       or 16384 cylinder).

       gpart checks if guessed partitions extend beyond the  disk
       size  and  marks  those  "invalid", but may be mistaken in
       case the disk size is calculated from an incorrect  geome­
       try.  For instance if a disk with the geometry 1028/255/63
       should be scanned, and the OS  reports  1024/255/63  gpart
       should be called like

              gpart -C 1028,255,63 <other options> <device>


       gpart may be of some help when the primary partition table
       was lost or destroyed but it can  under  no  circumstances
       replace  proper disk/partition table backups.  To save the
       master boot record (MBR) including the  primary  partition
       table to a file type

              dd if=/dev/hda of=mbr bs=512 count=1

       exchanging /dev/hda with the block device name of the disk
       in question. This should be done for all disks in the sys­
       tem.  To restore the primary partition table without over­
       writing the MBR type

              dd  if=mbr  of=/dev/hda  bs=1   count=64   skip=446

       Warning:  make sure that all parameters are typed as shown
       and that the disk device is correct. Failing to do so  may
       result  in  severe  filesystem  corruption. The saved file
       should be stored in a safe place like a floppy disk.


       -b backupfile
              If the guessed primary partition table  seems  con­
              sistent  and  should be written (see the -W option)
              backup the current MBR into the specified file.

       -C c,h,s
              Set the disk geometry (cylinders,  heads,  sectors)

       -d     Do  not start the guessing loop. Useful if the par­
              tition table should be printed (in combination with
              the -v option) without actually scanning for parti­

       -E     Do not try to identify extended  partition  tables.
              If  there  are  extended  partitions  on  the given
              device gpart will most certainly complain about too
              many  primary  partitions because there can be only
              four primary partitions.  Existing  logical  parti­
              tions will be listed as primary ones.

       -e     Do  not  skip  disk  read errors. If this option is
              given, and short disk reads or  general  disk  read
              errors  (EIO)  are encountered, gpart will exit. If
              not given, the program tries to continue.

       -f     Full scan. When  a  possible  partition  is  found,
              gpart  normally  skips all sectors this entry seems
              to occupy and continues the scan from  the  end  of
              the last possible partition. The disk scan can take
              quite a while if this option is given, be  patient.

       -g     Do not try to get the disk geometry from the OS. If
              the device is no block or character  device  but  a
              plain  file  this option should be supplied. If the
              file to be scanned is an image of a disk, the geom­
              etry can be given by the -C option.

       -h     Show some help.

       -i     Run  interactively.  Each time a possible partition
              is identified the user is asked for confirmation.

       -K last sector
              Scan only up to the given sector or the end of  the
              file or device whichever comes first.

       -k sectors
              Skip  given  number  of  sectors  before  the scan.
              Potentially useful if a partition is looked for  at
              the end of a large disk.

       -L     List  available  filesystem/partition  type modules
              and their weights, then exit.

       -l logfile
              Log output to the given file (even if -q  was  sup­

              increment is one sector.

       -q     Quiet/no output mode.  However  if  a  logfile  was
              specified  (see -l option) all output is written to
              that file. This option overrides the -i interactive

       -s sector size
              Preset medium sector size.  gpart tries to find out
              the sector size but may fail in  doing  so.  Probed
              sector sizes are 2^i, i=9..14 (512 to 16384 bytes).
              The default medium sector size is 512 bytes.

       -t module name
              Plug in another guessing module. The module  to  be
              dynamically  linked in must be a shared object file
              named "gm_<modname>.so".

       -V     Show version number.

       -v     Be verbose. This option can be given more than once
              resulting in quite a lot of information.

       -W device
              Write partition table. If a consistent primary par­
              tition table has been guessed it can be written  to
              the  specified  file or device. The supplied device
              can be the same as the scanned one.

              Additionally the guessed partition entries  can  be
              edited. No checks are performed on the entered val­
              ues, thus the resulting  table  is  allowed  to  be
              highly inconsistent. Please beware.

              Warning:  The  guessed  partition  table  should be
              checked very carefully before writing it back.  You
              can always write the guessed partition table into a
              plain file and write this into sector 0 using dd(1)
              (see section PRECAUTIONS above).

       -w module name,weight
              Put  the  given  module  at  the head of the module
              chain and assign a new weight to that  module.  All
              modules  are  given an initial weight of 1.0. Again
              no spaces are allowed.

       Default settings are "-n h".

       partitions contained in such a file type e.g.

              gpart -vdg /boot/boot.0300

       If  the  partition  table  contains an extended partition,
       gpart  will  complain  about  invalid  extended  partition
       tables  because  the  extended entry points to sectors not
       within that file.

       - Usually the first primary partition starts on the second
       head.  If  gpart cannot identify the first partition prop­
       erly this may not be the case.  gpart can be told to start
       the  scan  directly from sector one of the disk, using the
       sector-wise scan mode:

              gpart -k 1 -n s /dev/hdb

       - Suppose gpart identifies an NTFS partition as FAT  on  a
       certain  disk.  In this situation the "ntfs" module should
       be made the first module to be probed and given  a  weight
       higher than the usual weight of 1.0:

              gpart -w ntfs,1.5 /dev/hdb

       To list the available modules and their weights use the -L

       - After having  checked  the  output  of  gpart  at  least
       thrice, the primary partition table can be written back to
       the device this way:

              gpart -W /dev/sdc /dev/sdc

       This of course may be extremely dangerous to  your  health
       and social security, so beware.

       - A hard disk with 63 sectors per head is scanned in steps
       of 63 sectors. To perform the scan on  every  second  head
       while skipping the first 1008 sectors type

              gpart -k 1008 -n 126 /dev/sda

       - If  you want to see how easily gpart can be mislead, and
       how many probable partition starts are on a  disk,  search
       the whole disk really sector by sector, writing all output
       to a logfile:

              gpart -vvfn s -ql /tmp/gpart.log /dev/sd2 &

       Usually gpart will not be  able  to  produce  an  educated
       guess  of  the  primary  partition table in this mode. The
       logfile however  may  contain  enough  hints  to  manually


       gpart is beta software, so expect buggy behaviour.

       -  gpart only accepts extended partition  links  with  one
       logical  partition.  There may be fdisk variants out there
       creating links with up to three logical partition  entries
       but these are not accepted.


       - Support big-endian architectures.
       - Test on 64-bit architectures.
       - Look for boot manager partitions (e.g. OS/2 BM).
       - Think about reconstructing logical partition chains.


       Please send bug reports, suggestions, comments etc. to

              Michail Brzitwa <michail@brzitwa.de>



Administration Tools       January 2001                  GPART(8)

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