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       depmod [-aA] [-ehnqrsuvV] [-C configfile]  [-F kernelsyms]
       [-b basedirectory] [forced_version]
       depmod  [-enqrsuv] [-F kernelsyms] module1.o module2.o ...


       The depmod and modprobe utilities are intended to  make  a
       Linux modular kernel manageable for all users, administra­
       tors and distribution maintainers.

       Depmod creates a "Makefile"-like dependency file, based on
       the  symbols  it  finds in the set of modules mentioned on
       the command line or from the directories specified in  the
       configuration file.  This dependency file is later used by
       modprobe to automatically load the correct module or stack
       of modules.

       The normal use of depmod is to include the line

       /sbin/depmod -a

       somewhere  in  the rc-files in /etc/rc.d, so that the cor­
       rect module dependencies  will  be  available  immediately
       after  booting the system.  Note that the option -a is now
       optional.  For boot-up purposes, the option  -q  might  be
       more  appropriate  since  that  makes  depmod silent about
       unresolved symbols.

       It is also possible to create the dependency file  immedi­
       ately  after  compiling  a  new  kernel.   If you do "dep­
       mod -a 2.2.99" when you have compiled  kernel  2.2.99  and
       its  modules  the  first  time,  while  still running e.g.
       2.2.98, the file will be created in the correct place.  In
       this case however, the dependencies on the kernel will not
       be  guaranteed   to   be   correct.    See   the   options
       -F, -C and -b above for more information on handling this.

       While building the relationship between  modules  and  the
       symbols  exported  by  other modules, depmod does not con­
       sider the GPL status of the modules nor  of  the  exported
       symbols.  That is, depmod will not flag an error if a mod­
       ule without a GPL compatible license refers to a GPL  only
       symbol  (EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL in the kernel).  However insmod
       will refuse to resolve GPL only symbols for  non-GPL  mod­
       ules so the actual load will fail.


       -a, --all
              Search  for modules in all directories specified in
              the   (optional)   configuration   file   /etc/mod­
              the /lib/modules tree.

       -q, --quiet
              Tell depmod to keep quiet and not to complain about
              missing symbols.

       -r, --root
              Some users compile modules under a non-root  userid
              then install the modules as root.  This process can
              leave the modules owned  by  the  non-root  userid,
              even though the modules directory is owned by root.
              If the non-root userid is compromised, an  intruder
              can overwrite existing modules owned by that userid
              and use this  exposure  to  bootstrap  up  to  root

              By  default, modutils will reject attempts to use a
              module that is not owned by  root.   Specifying  -r
              will suppress the error and allow root to load mod­
              ules that are not owned by root.

              Use of -r is a major security exposure and  is  not

       -s, --syslog
              Write  all  error  messages  via  the syslog daemon
              instead of stderr.

       -u, --unresolved-error
              depmod 2.4 does not set a return  code  when  there
              are any unresolved symbols.  The next major release
              of modutils (2.5) will set a return code for  unre­
              solved symbols.  Some distributions want a non-zero
              return code in modutils 2.4 but that  change  might
              cause   problems  for  users  who  expect  the  old
              behaviour.  If you want a non-zero return  code  in
              depmod  2.4,  specify -u.  depmod 2.5 will silently
              ignore the -u flag and will always give a  non-zero
              return code for unresolved symbols.

       -v, --verbose
              Show  the  name  of each module as it is being pro­

       -V, --version
              Display the version of depmod.

       The following options are useful for people managing  dis­

       -b basedirectory, --basedir basedirectory
              If  the  directory tree /lib/modules containing the
              also  be  used  to select a different configuration
              file  from  the   default   /etc/modules.conf   (or
              /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)).

       When environment variable
              UNAME_MACHINE  is  set, modutils will use its value
              instead of  the  machine  field  from  the  uname()
              syscall.   This  is mainly of use when you are com­
              piling 64 bit modules in 32 bit user space or  vice
              versa, set UNAME_MACHINE to the type of the modules
              being built.  Current  modutils  does  not  support
              full cross build mode for modules, it is limited to
              choosing between 32 and 64 bit versions of the host

       -F kernelsyms,--filesyms kernelsyms
              When building dependency files for a different ker­
              nel than the currently running kernel, it is impor­
              tant  that  depmod  uses  the correct set of kernel
              symbols to resolve the kernel  references  in  each
              module.  These symbols can either be a copy of Sys­
              tem.map from the other kernel, or  a  copy  of  the
              output  from /proc/ksyms.  If your kernel uses ver­
              sioned symbols, it is best to use  a  copy  of  the
              /proc/ksyms  output,  since  that file contains the
              symbol versions of the kernel symbols.  However you
              can use a System.map even with versioned symbols.


       The behavior of depmod and modprobe can be adjusted by the
       (optional) configuration file /etc/modules.conf.
       See  modprobe(8)  and  modules.conf(5)  for   a   complete


       Each time you compile a new kernel, the command "make mod­
       ules_install" will  create  a  new  directory,  but  won't
       change the default.

       When you get a module unrelated to the kernel distribution
       you should place it  in  one  of  the  version-independent
       directories under /lib/modules.

       This  is  the default strategy, which can be overridden in


       /etc/modules.conf (alternatively but deprecated /etc/conf.modules)

       not be fixed in 2.4, it should be fixed in 2.5.


       Jacques Gelinas (jack@solucorp.qc.ca)
       Bjorn Ekwall (bj0rn@blox.se)

Linux                   February 12, 2003               DEPMOD(8)



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