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       SANE is an application programming  interface  (API)  that
       provides  standardized  access to any raster image scanner
       hardware. The standardized interface makes it possible  to
       write  just  one driver for each scanner device instead of
       one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at  a  UNIX  environment,
       the standard has been carefully designed to make it possi­
       ble to implement the API  on  virtually  any  hardware  or
       operating system.

       This  manual  page  provides  a summary of the information
       available about SANE.

       If you have trouble getting your  scanner  detected,  read
       the PROBLEMS section.


       An  application  that  uses the SANE interface is called a
       SANE frontend.  A driver that implements the  SANE  inter­
       face  is  called  a SANE backend.  A meta backend provides
       some means to manage one or more other backends.


       The package `sane-backends' contains a  lot  of  backends,
       documentation  (including  the  SANE standard), networking
       support, and the command line frontend  `scanimage'.   The
       frontends `xscanimage', `xcam', and `scanadf' are included
       in the package `sane-frontends'.   Both  packages  can  be
       downloaded        from       the       SANE       homepage
       (http://www.mostang.com/sane/).  Information  about  other
       frontends  and  backends can be found on the frontend page


       The following  sections  provide  short  descriptions  and
       links  to  more information about several aspects of SANE.
       A name with a number in parenthesis (e.g.   `sane-dll(5)')
       points  to  a  manual  page. In this case `man 5 sane-dll'
       will display the page. Entries like  `/usr/share/doc/pack­
       ages/sane/sane-backends/sane.tex'  are  references to text
       files that were copied to the SANE documentation directory
       (/usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-backends/)       during
       installation. Everything else is a URL to  a  resource  on
       the web.

         ported-devices.html.  The lists are  also  installed  on
         your  system  at /usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-back­

       SANE mailing list
         There is a mailing list for the  purpose  of  discussing
         the  SANE  standard and its implementations: sane-devel.
         Despite its name, the list  is  not  only  intended  for
         developers,  but also for users. Since this is currently
         the only mailing list devoted to SANE, it's perfectly OK
         to  ask  questions that are not strictly related to SANE
         development.   How   to   subscribe   and   unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel #sane can be found
         on the Freenode  network  (irc.freenode.net).  It's  for
         discussing  SANE problems, talking about development and
         general SANE related chatting. Before asking  for  help,
         please  read  the  other documentation mentioned in this
         manual page.

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look     at      /usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-back­
         ends/README and the os-dependent README files for infor­
         mation about compiling and installing SANE.

       SCSI configuration
         For information about  various  systems  and  SCSI  con­
         trollers see sane-scsi(5).

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access
         image  acquisition  devices available on the local host.
         See saned(1).

         Command-line tool to find  SCSI  and  USB  scanners  and
         determine  their  Unix device files. See sane-find-scan­

       Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (including
       xscanimage,  xcam,  and scanadf) and the frontend informa­
       tion   page   at    http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane-fron­

         The SANE backend for Apple flatbed scanners supports the
         following  scanners:  AppleScanner,  OneScanner and Col­
         orOneScanner. See sane-apple(5) for details.

         The SANE Artec  backend  supports  several  Artec/Ultima
         SCSI flatbed scanners as well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP
         and the Plustek 19200S. See sane-artec(5) for details.

         The SANE artec_eplus48u  backend  supports  the  scanner
         Artec  E+  48U and re-badged models like Tevion MD 9693,
         Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705 and  Trust  Easy  Webscan
         19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel
         port interface scanner. See sane-as6e(5) for details.

         This backend supports several  Avision  based  scanners.
         This  includes  the  original  Avision scanners (like AV
         630, AV 620, ...) as well as the  HP  ScanJet  53xx  and
         74xx  series,  Fujitsu  ScanPartner, some Mitsubishi and
         Minolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for details.

         The  bh  backend provides access to Bell+Howell Copiscan
         II series document scanners. See sane-bh(5) for details.

         The  canon  backend  supports the CanoScan 300, CanoScan
         600, and  CanoScan  2700F  SCSI  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-canon(5) for details.

         The  canon630u  backend  supports  the CanoScan 630u and
         636u USB scanners.  See sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         The  canon_pp  backend  supports  the  CanoScan  FB330P,
         FB630P,  N340P  and  N640P  parallel port scanners.  See
         sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film-scanners.
         See sane-coolscan(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film-scanners.
         The  gt68xx  backend provides support for scanners based
         on the Grandtech GT-6801  and  GT-6816  chips  like  the
         Artec  Ultima  2000 and several Mustek BearPaw CU and TA
         models. Some  Genius,  Lexmark,  Medion,  Packard  Bell,
         Plustek,  and  Trust  scanners  are  also supported. See
         sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         The SANE hp backend provides access  to  Hewlett-Packard
         ScanJet scanners which support SCL (Scanner Control Lan­
         guage by HP). See sane-hp(5) for details.

         The SANE backend  for  the  Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  5S
         scanner. See sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC
         series. See sane-hp5400(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for some IBM and Ricoh  SCSI  scanners.
         See sane-ibm(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Leo S3 and the Across FS-1130,
         which  is  a  re-badged   LEO   FS-1130   scanner.   See
         sane-leo(5) for details.

         The ma1509 backend supports the Mustek BearPaw 1200F USB
         flatbed scanner. See sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         This backend supports some  Panasonic  KVSS  high  speed
         scanners. See sane-matsushita(5) for details.

         The microtek backend provides access to the "second gen­
         eration" Microtek scanners with SCSI-1 command set.  See
         sane-microtek(5) for details.

         The  microtek2  backend provides access to some Microtek
         scanners   with    a    SCSI-2    command    set.    See
         sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         The  SANE  mustek  backend  supports  most  Mustek  SCSI
         flatbed scanners including the Paragon  and  ScanExpress
         series  and the 600 II N (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners
         are also supported. See sane-mustek(5) for details.

         The  pie  backend provides access to Pacific Image Elec­
         tronics (PIE) and  Devcom  SCSI  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-pie(5) for details.

         The  SANE plustek backend supports Plustek parallel port
         and LM983[1/2/3] based USB  flatbed  scanners.  Scanners
         using the LM983x chips include some models from Plustek,
         KYE/Genius, Hewlett-Packard, Mustek,  Umax,  Epson,  and
         Canon. See sane-plustek(5) for details.

         The ricoh backend provides access to the following Ricoh
         flatbed scanners: IS50 and IS60. See  sane-ricoh(5)  for

         The  s9036  backend  provides  access  to  Siemens  9036
         flatbed scanners. See sane-s9036(5) for details.

         The sceptre backend provides access to the Sceptre S1200
         flatbed scanner. See sane-sceptre(5)
          for details.

         The SANE sharp backend supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See
         sane-sharp(5) for details.

         The SANE sm3600 backend supports the Microtek  ScanMaker
         3600 USB scanner. See sane-sm3600(5) for details.

         The  snapscan  backend  supports  AGFA  SnapScan flatbed
         scanners. See sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Fujitsu FCPA  ScanPartner  15C
         flatbed scanner. See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         The  sane-st400 backend provides access to Siemens ST400
         and ST800. See sane-st400(5) for details.

         The SANE tamarack  backend  supports  Tamarack  Artiscan
         flatbed scanners. See sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3

         The sane-umax1220u backend supports the UMAX Astra 1220U
         (USB)  flatbed  scanner  (and also the UMAX Astra 2000U,
         sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also, have a look  at  the  backend  information  page  at
       and  the  list   of   projects   in   /usr/share/doc/pack­


         Backend    for   Kodak   DC210   Digital   Camera.   See

         Backend   for   Kodak   DC240   Digital   Camera.    See

         Backend   for   Kodak  DC20/DC25  Digital  Cameras.  See

         Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera.  See

         Backend  for  digital  cameras  supported by the gphoto2
         library package.  (See  http://www.gphoto.org  for  more
         information  and  a list of supported cameras.)  Gphoto2
         supports over 140  different  camera  models.   However,
         please  note that more development and testing is needed
         before all of these cameras will be  supported  by  SANE
         backend.  See sane-gphoto2(5).

         Backend    for    Connectix    QuickCam   cameras.   See

       Also, have a look  at  the  backend  information  page  at
       and  the  list   of   projects   in   /usr/share/doc/pack­


         The sane-dll library implements a SANE backend that pro­
         vides access to an arbitrary number of other SANE  back­
         Twain) device driver.  The PINT driver is being actively
         developed  on  the OpenBSD platform, and has been ported
         to  a  few  other  *nix-like  operating   systems.   See

         The  SANE  test backend is for testing frontends and the
         SANE installation.  It provides test pictures and  vari­
         ous test options. See sane-test(5).

         The sane-v4l library implements a SANE backend that pro­
         vides generic access to video cameras and similar equip­
         ment   using   the   V4L  (Video  for  Linux)  API.  See

       Also, have a look  at  the  backend  information  page  at
       and  the  list   of   projects   in   /usr/share/doc/pack­


       By default, all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynami­
       cally by the sane-dll meta backend. If you have any  ques­
       tions  about  the dynamic loading, read sane-dll(5).  SANE
       frontend can also be linked to other backends directly  by
       copying   or   linking   a   backend   to   libsane.so  in


       It's not hard to write a SANE backend. It  can  take  some
       time,  however.  You should have basic knowledege of C and
       enough patience to work through the documentation and find
       out  how  your  scanner  works. Appended is a list of some
       documents that help to write backends and frontends.

       The SANE  standard  defines  the  application  programming
       interface  (API) that is used to communicate between fron­
       tends   and    backends.    It    can    be    found    at
       /usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-backends/sane.ps     (if
       latex is installed on your system) and on  the  SANE  web­
       site:    http://www.mostang.com/sane/html/    (HTML),   or
       http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane.ps (Postscript).

       There  is  some  more  information  for   programmers   in
       ing.txt.  Most of the internal SANE routines  (sanei)  are
       documented  using doxygen: http://sanei.meier-geinitz.de/.
       Before a new backend or frontend project is started,  have


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The  shared  libraries  implementing  the  backends
              (present  on systems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE documentation:  The  standard,  READMEs,  text
              files for backends etc.


       If  your  device  isn't found but you know that it is sup­
       ported, make sure that it is detected  by  your  operating
       system. For SCSI and USB scanners, use the sane-find-scan­
       ner tool (see sane-find-scanner(1) for details). It prints
       one  line  for  each scanner it has detected and some com­
       ments (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as
       root  but  not  as  normal  user,  the permissions for the
       device files are not adjusted correctly.  If  the  scanner
       isn't  found  at all, the operating system hasn't detected
       it and may need some help. Depending on the type  of  your
       scanner,  read sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If your scan­
       ner (or other device) is not connected over the  SCSI  bus
       or  USB, read the backend's manual page for details on how
       to set it up.

       Now your scanner is detected by the operating  system  but
       not  by  SANE?   Try  scanimage -L.  If the scanner is not
       found, check that  the  backend's  name  is  mentioned  in
       /etc/sane.d/dll.conf.   Some backends are commented out by
       default. Remove the comment sign for your backend in  this
       case.  Also some backends aren't compiled at all if one of
       their prerequisites are missing. Examples  include  dc210,
       dc240,  canon_pp,  hpsj5s,  gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net,
       sm3600, snapscan, pnm. If you need one of  these  backends
       and  they aren't available, read the build instructions in
       the README file and the individual  manual  pages  of  the

       Another reason for not beeing detected by scanimage -L may
       be a missing or wrong configuration in the backend's  con­
       figuration  file.  While  SANE tries to automatically find
       most scanners, some can't be setup correctly  without  the
       is doing while the SCSI debugging shows the low level han­
       dling. If you can't find out what's going on  by  checking
       the  messages  carefully,  contact  the sane-devel mailing
       list for help (see REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to  do
       a  scan: scanimage >image.pnm.  This command starts a scan
       for the default scanner with  default  settings.  All  the
       available  options are listed by running scanimage --help.
       If scanning aborts with an error message, turn  on  debug­
       ging  as  mentioned  above.  Maybe  the configuration file
       needs some tuning, e.g. to setup the path  to  a  firmware
       that  is needed by some scanners. See the backend's maunal
       page for details. If you can't find out what's wrong, con­
       tact sane-devel.

       To  check  that the SANE libraries are installed correctly
       you can use the test backend, even if  you  don't  have  a
       scanner or other SANE device:

              scanimage -d test -T

       You should get a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same
       with your backend by changing  "test"  to  your  backend's

       So  now  scanning with scanimage works and you want to use
       one of the graphical frontends like xsane, xscanimage,  or
       quiteinsane but those frontends don't detect your scanner?
       One reason may be that you installed two versions of SANE.
       E.g.  the  version that was installed by your distribution
       in /usr and one you installed from source in  /usr/local/.
       Make sure that only one version is installed. Another pos­
       sible reason is, that your system's dynamic  loader  can't
       find  the  SANE  libraries.  For  Linux,  make  sure  that
       /etc/ld.so.conf contains /usr/local/lib and does not  con­
       tain  /usr/local/lib/sane.   See also the documentation of
       the frontends.


       We appreciate any help we can get. Here are some topics on
       which you can work:

       Writing backends
              Without  a backend, a scanner doesn't work. So it's
              crucial we have backends for  as  much  devices  as
              possible.  It's  not necessary to be an experienced
              programmer to start writing a backend. If you  have
              an  unsupported scanner, writing a backend yourself
              is probably the only way to get it  supported.  See
              ners). In any case, keep the sane-devel mailinglist
              informed of your plans.

       Reporting unsupported scanners
              Even  if  you can't write a backend for your unsup­
              ported scanner, please send us all the  information
              you  have  about it. We need the make and the model
              name of your scanner. Also  provide  an  output  of
              sane-find-scanner -v -v.  For Linux: If it's a SCSI
              scanner, show us the output of cat /proc/scsi/scsi,
              for  a  USB  scanner: cat /proc/bus/usb/devices (if
              the  file  is  not  there,  do  mount  -t  usbdevfs
              /proc/bus/usb /proc/bus/usb).  See CONTACT section.

       Reporting bugs and missing features
              If you think something in SANE isn't working as  it
              should,  please  don't  hesiate  to contact us (see
              COTACT scetion). Please provide as many details  as
              possible.  Describe  which  software  you are using
              (operating system + version, distribution,  version
              of  sane-backends  and  of  the  frontend you use).
              Explain exactly what  doesn't  work,  is  wrong  or

       Adding and fixing documentation
              If you found a bug in any documentation (man pages,
              web site, READMEs), please contact us (see  CONTACT
              section).  Also write us if you think some documen­
              tation is missing. Please include a patch  in  this
              case,  if possible. Don't hesitate to send spelling
              and grammar mistakes.

              The options of the backends can be translated.  For
              some  languages,  the  translations are almost com­
              plete, but some are lacking a lot of words and  for
              most  languages  there is no translation at all. If
              you want to help to translate the options  to  your
              native language (or a language you speak fluently),
              contact the sane-devel mailing list and have a look
              at the po/ directory in the source code.

       Success reports
              If you had success using SANE we want to know about
              that, too. Especially if your scanner is not in the
              lists yet or is marked "untested".


       If you want to comment on a backend-specific problem, con­
       tact the author of your backend. Usually the email address
       can  be  found  in  the /usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-
       saned(1),  sane-find-scanner(1),  scanimage(1),  sane-aba­
       ton(5),  sane-agfafocus(5),  sane-apple(5), sane-artec(5),
       sane-artec_eplus48u(5),   sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),
       sane-bh(5),        sane-canon(5),       sane-canon630u(5),
       sane-canon_pp(5),   sane-coolscan2(5),   sane-coolscan(5),
       sane-dc210(5),  sane-dc240(5),  sane-dc25(5), sane-dll(5),
       sane-dmc(5),        sane-epson(5),        sane-fujitsu(5),
       sane-gphoto2(5),        sane-gt68xx(5),        sane-hp(5),
       sane-hpsj5s(5), sane-hp5400(5)  sane-ibm(5),  sane-leo(5),
       sane-ma1509(5),   sane-matsushita(5),   sane-microtek2(5),
       sane-microtek(5),    sane-mustek(5),    sane-mustek_pp(5),
       sane-mustek_usb(5), sane-nec(5), sane-net(5), sane-pie(5),
       sane-pint(5), sane-plustek(5), sane-pnm(5),  sane-qcam(5),
       sane-ricoh(5),       sane-s9036(5),       sane-sceptre(5),
       sane-scsi(5),  sane-sharp(5),  sane-sm3600(5),  sane-snap­
       scan(5),  sane-sp15c(5),  sane-st400(5), sane-tamarack(5),
       sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5), sane-teco3(5), sane-test(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5),      sane-umax(5),     sane-umax_pp(5),
       sane-usb(5), sane-v4l(5)


       David   Mosberger-Tang   and   many   many    more    (see
       /usr/share/doc/packages/sane/sane-backends/AUTHORS     for
       details).  This man page was  written  by  Henning  Meier-
       Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was taken from the SANE stan­
       dard, several man pages, and README files.

sane-backends 1.0.12       19 Apr 2003                    sane(7)
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